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怎样交给学生“探究钥匙”
2018-09-22 08:16:00   来源:   评论:0 点击:

结合我校开展的分享式生命课堂——小组合作学习中的探究性学习,以高中生物教学为例,浅谈我的看法,与全校师生共勉。生物课堂教学是


       结合我校开展的“分享式生命课堂——小组合作学习”中的探究性学习,以高中生物教学为例,浅谈我的看法,与全校师生共勉。生物课堂教学是以生命为主线最能体现生命课堂精髓,以小组合作学习来体验过程,感受变化。在探究性学习中教师怎样做,才能够使学生理解探究,感悟科学探究的方法和过程,形成一定的科学探究能力。我们的做法是:授人以渔,准备一把“探究钥匙”,交给学生来打开探究性学习,这把难解的“锁”。

       1 、探究概念

       美国《国家科学教育标准》对探究界定为“科学探究是指科学家们用于研究自然并基于此种研究获得的证据,提出解释的多种不同途径。探究也指学生用以获取的知识,领悟科学家的思想观念,领悟科学家研究自然界所有方法而进行的种种活动。探究是一种多侧面的活动,需要观察事物,提出问题,查阅书刊及其它信息源,以便弄清楚什么情况是为人所知的东西。需要明确假设,设计调研方案,进行探究性实验,根据实验证据来检验为人所知的东西;需要运用各种手段来搜集分析和解读数据,需要考虑可能的其它解释。运用判断思维和逻辑思维来发现新问题进行实验改进与创新,作出结论并把研究成果告知与人。”

       中国教育部在2003年制订的《普通高中生物课程标准(实验)》(以下简称标准)在课程的基本概念中指出“面向全体学生,提高生物科学素养,倡导探究性学习,力图促进学生学习方式的变革,引导学生主动参与探究过程,勤于动手和动脑,逐步培养学生搜集和处理科学信息的能力,获取新知识的能力,批判性思维能力,分析和解决问题的能力,以及交流与合作能力等,重在培养创新精神和实践能力。《标准》中对发展学生的科学探究能力提出了11项具体要求。

       2 、 “探究钥匙”

       以探究性实验教学基本要求为突破口,交给学生探究钥匙,那就是近似模仿科学家那样的工作。从提出问题入手,带着问题去查找相关信息和资料,确定实验题目,作出实验假设和预期。再以实验为载体,设计调研方案,进行实验操作,收集证据,分析解读数据,探究科学结论。努力从中发现新问题,对实验进行力所能及的改进与创新,进行延伸探究,拓展实验。最后撰写实验报告对实验进行反思和评价。

       3 、使用探究钥匙打开探究性实验这把难解的“锁”

       3.1  探究性实验教学基本要求:
1.创设情境,提出问题 确定一个可通过实验探究解决的问题。
2.作出假设,预期结果 对提出的问题作出尝试性回答。对假设的结果作出符合逻辑的推论
3.实验设计,确认变量 ①列出所需的材料用具和试剂
②明确实验目的和原理
③设计实验的方法步骤
④设计实验观察记录表
⑤设计对照实验
⑥确认控制变量
4.实验操作,搜集数据 完成基本的操作过程(观察、实验)观察记录详细,收集数据准确。
5.分析结果,得出结论 描述实验现象,整理和解读数据,论证并得出结论。
6.表达交流,探究评价 填写探究性实验报告,交流实验设计方案、结果或结论。完成探究评价。
7.发现新问题,延伸探究 在实验中发现新问题并深入延伸探究,创新实验。
 
 

       3.2探究性实验的特点
 
       探究性实验的特点是自主性、探究性和灵活性。探究性实验是在教师的指导下,学生自己设计并完成实验,要求学生熟悉教材内容,运用实验设计的原则和方法,设计出合理的实验方案,在不知晓结果的前提下,通过观察的现象、得出的数据,进行分析论证,得出实验结果。探究性实验不同于验证性实验,这使得实验中出现什么现象,学生不能直接从课本中找出答案。只能通过理解探究进行探究实验来获取,探究性实验强调的是完成课题的过程,而不是简单的实验操作。探究性实验的灵活性体现在可以从不同角度提出问题,可以提出不同的假设,可以有不同的探究方法,可以用不同的实验材料,根据学校实验室条件和学生实际情况,可以选做课题等。

       3.3探究性实验的难点
 
       探究性实验的难点是设计实验方案,也是探究性实验的核心与“锁芯”。

       (1)实验设计的内容:材料用具、实验目的、实验原理、方法步骤、观察记录表、对照实验和预期实验结果等。

       (2)实验设计的原则:科学性原则、可行性原则、简便性原则、对照原则、重复原则和单一变量原则。

       4 、探究性实验采用的科学方法

       4.1  科学探究方法

       人教版高中生物全套教材的学生分组实验,涉及的题目多,范围广,各类题目的探究方法都不尽相同。有观察法、调查法、文献法、实验法、模拟法等。还有假说演绎、模型建构、系统分析、建立数学模型等科学方法。

       4.2  实例应用

       ①观察法:“植物细胞的吸水与失水”及“培养液中酵母菌种群数量的变化”等;
       ②调查法:“调查人群中的遗传病”、“调查当地农田生态系中的能量流动情况”“用样方法调查草地中某种双子叶植物的种群密度”及“土壤中小动物类群丰富度的研究”等;
       ③实验法:“探究影响酶活性的因素”、“探究生长素类似物促进插条生根的最适浓度”、“果胶酶在果汁生产中的作用”、“DNA的粗提取与鉴定”及“探究酵母菌细胞呼吸的方式”等。
       ④模拟法:“细胞大小与物质运输的关系”、“性状分离比的模拟实验”、“生物体维持PH稳定的机制”及“重组DNA分子的模拟操作”等;
       ⑤假说演绎:“脱氧核苷酸序列与遗传信息的多样性”及“自然选择对种群基因频率变化的影响”等;
       ⑥模型建构:“尝试制作真核细胞三维结构模型”、“建立减数分裂中染色体变化的模型”、“制作DNA双螺旋结构模型”和“建立血糖调节的模型”。
       ⑦建立数学模型:“生物体维持PH稳定的机制”等。

       在高中生物探究性实验教学中,交给学生“探究钥匙”,不仅能够促进学生学习方式的改变,而且是使学生领悟科学研究方法,体验科学过程,形成一定的科学探究能力的重要手段。在培养学生创新精神、实践能力和科学思维等方面,具有十分重要的作用。把班级同学分成几个学习小组,进行小组合作学习,探究出的问题只是表面层次的,还有更深层次的探究有待我们去挖掘去探索。
 
       
       吴建华教师,东北师范大学生物系本科学历,生物学高级教师,全国优秀教师,国家级骨干教师。在省级重点高中任教生物课十五年,培养出数以千计的准大学生。在教学中擅长实验研究,主持国家级正式立项课题:高中生物学学生分组探究性实验教学的研究,结题并获奖,在全国核心期刊发表研究论文10余篇,如dna重组技术中有关碱基对间氢键断裂的问题研究,及探究酵母菌细胞呼吸的方式问题的探讨等在学界引起反响。注重生物实验教学,学生分组实验开出率达到80%,历年生物高考题中近半数是实验题型。擅长培养学生的学习兴趣,组织学生课外科技活动,曾获得国家级奖励,鸟类剥制标本制作技术,在全省推广,白鹭作品获全国最高荣誉奖,在国家级自然保护区博物馆创建鸟类标本展厅。

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