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中学生物显微镜的操作规程及注意事项
2018-09-27 08:38:38   来源:   评论:0 点击:

显微镜的使用是中学生物学学生分组实验的第一课,其重要性众所周知。然而,有些教师对生物显微镜操作的不规范性,乃至一些教辅资料
        “显微镜的使用”是中学生物学学生分组实验的第一课,其重要性众所周知。然而,有些教师对生物显微镜操作的不规范性,乃至一些教辅资料,甚至涉及的高考复习题、模拟题及本省实验会考题等,都出现了一些“问题”。

       有的年轻教师甚至把有关显微镜操作的错误习题内容,当做显微镜的操作规程来教给学生。本文结合多年实验教学经验,仅就中学生物显微镜的操作规程及注意事项,重新阐述,义正视听。

       1.显微镜的操作规程
       1.1 置显微镜于工作状态
       1.1.1 取镜安放
       取出显微镜,安放在实验台两人之间位置后,观察显微镜的静止装箱状态:目镜(10×)及物镜(10×和40×)都已事先装好(在普通中学必须这样)。物镜两柱向前,镜筒垂直下落。

       1.1.2使显微镜向后倾斜20°角左右,便于坐着观察
   用右手握住镜臂,左手把住镜座,使倾斜关节[1]活动,使显微镜在一定范围内后倾(一般倾斜不得超过40°角)。

       1.1.3 对光
       转动转换器,使低倍物镜正对通光孔,旋转粗准焦螺旋,把物镜头调节至距载物台1cm处。低倍物镜的有效工作距离是0.8cm.左眼贴近并注视目镜内,用手转动反光镜面向光源(一定用非直射光),在目镜里看见一个圆形明亮的视野。
一般在低倍镜时用平面镜,在高倍镜时用凹面镜[2].

       1.1.4使微调处于中间位置
       转动细准焦螺旋,使之处于上下可调的中间位置,便于调焦。

       1.1.5  安放玻片标本
       临时装片或切片应盖玻片朝上,永久固定装片或切片应带标签的一面朝上,放在载物台上,用压片夹压住,标本材料正对通光孔中心。

       1.2   显微镜的使用原则
       1.2.1  先用低倍镜
       观察任何标本都必须先用低倍镜。
       眼观物镜,顺时针转动粗准焦螺旋,使镜筒缓缓下降,直到物镜接近玻片标本为止(一般距盖玻片2-3mm)[3],然后用左眼注视目镜,右眼同时睁开,以便绘图记录。同时反方向转动粗准焦螺旋,使镜筒缓慢上升,直到看清物像为止。再转动细准焦螺旋来回调节,使看到的物像更加清晰。如果物像不在视野中间,则可一面观察,一面用手移动玻片标本,直到所要观察的物像进入视野中间。从目镜中看到的像是倒像,玻片移动的方向与视野里物像的移动方向正好相反。

       1.2.2 后用高倍镜
      使用高倍镜的前提条件是:①光圈用最大,②反光镜用凹面,③低倍镜下看清物像,④细准焦螺旋处于中间位置。

       1.2.2.1  选好目标
       将在低倍镜下找到的清晰地要观察的目标,移至视野正中。

       1.2.2.2  换上高倍物镜
       转动转换器,换上高倍物镜。不用担心物镜会碰到玻片,正常情况下,高倍物镜的有效工作距离为0.48mm。[2]

       1.2.2.3  调动细准焦螺旋
       初始看到的高倍物像是模糊不清的(由于高倍物镜和低倍物镜的焦点,不可能精确地重合在一起)。在正常情况下,只要逆时针方向略微调动细准焦螺旋,即可得到清晰的物像。

       1.2.2.4  移动玻片标本找到准确的观察目标
       在高倍镜下看到的不一定是要观察的目标,缓慢移动玻片标本,找到准确的观察目标。

       1.2.2.5  根据需要调节光圈或聚光器
       在转换高倍物镜并且看清物像之后,可以根据需要调节光圈或聚光器[4],使光线符合要求。

       1.2.2.6  高倍镜下物像的特点
       与低倍镜相比,高倍镜下可视面积缩小;视野变暗;物像放大更清晰。所放大的是原物像长度或宽度的倍数,而不是面积的倍数。

       1.3   用毕置显微镜于静止装箱状态
       ①转动转换器,移去高倍镜,取出玻片标本:②不要取下显微镜任何物件,进行清洁。特别注意,镜头应用镜头纸揩拭,其他物件用纱布擦拭:③使物镜错开通光孔,两柱向前;④将镜筒直立;⑤转粗准焦螺旋使镜筒下降至最低;⑥将反光镜转至与载物台垂直;⑦装箱。

       2. 使用显微镜注意事项
       2.1  必须严格执行显微镜的操作规程
先用低倍镜,后用高倍镜,镜头上升时调焦。禁止镜头下降时调焦,避免压碎玻片,损伤镜片。说着容易,做起来很难。尤其是在高倍镜下找不到目标时,忘记了换回低倍镜重找的原则。

       2.2   不给学生选择镜头机会,以防弄脏、损坏和丢失镜头;

       2.3  镜筒无故不要升的太高,防止齿轮磨损,导致镜筒自然下降;
       因为低倍镜的有效工作距离是0.8cm。

       2.4   显微镜的倾斜角度不能太大
      防止临时装片里的水流下来,带出标本材料。一般在20°角左右,就可以坐着工作。

       2.5   用左眼贴近目镜观看,同时右眼睁开,以便绘图记录
       有的学生眼离目镜约5cm看显微镜,怎能看清物像。

       2.6  养成运用反光镜的习惯
      在低倍镜时用平面镜,在高倍镜时用凹面镜。

       2.7   在高倍镜下不能动反光镜
      因高倍镜下不能对光。如果光线较弱,根据需要,可调节光圈或聚光器。

       2.8   转换高倍镜头时,正常情况下,不要害怕物镜会磕着玻片
      更不能调动粗准焦螺旋提升镜筒,高倍镜的有效工作距离为0.48mm,就是说高倍镜片与盖玻片之间仍有一定的间隙。

       2.9   使微调处于中间位置
      细准焦螺旋有极限,不能转动时,不要硬转,以防破坏齿轮。

       2.10   使用标准的载盖玻片
      这是正常情况。如果载盖玻片过厚或者是一张载片作盖片,压在另一张载片上作临时装片来使用,到不影响低倍镜的观察效果。但在做高倍观察时,就连高倍物镜都换不上,而被卡在了半途中。

       2.11  正面朝上安放玻片标本
      有盖玻片的一面为正面。如果反面朝上放置,并不影响低倍观察。但在做高倍观察时,同样会换不上高倍物镜(永久装片也不例外),即使强行换上高倍物镜,也无法调焦。

       2.12  要学会移动玻片标本,寻找最佳观察目标
      尤其是在高倍镜下,更应掌握反相移动的原理。显微镜下所成的像是倒立的虚像,若观察的为“b”,则显微镜中看到的应为“q”;物象上下左右与玻片上物体的位置是颠倒的(但细胞质流动的方向是是一致的)。 若物像偏向左下方,装片也应向左下方移动才能将其移至视野中央,可总结为“偏哪儿移哪儿”。

       2.13   在中学阶段对玻片标本的任何处理都不要在显微镜下进行
      对玻片标本的任何处理(包括引流和染色),在中学阶段都不能在载物台上进行。以防污染镜头,弄脏载物台。应将玻片取下来,在实验台上进行操作。

       2.14   要向爱护眼睛那样,爱护显微镜头。
      不要用手触摸透镜,脏了要用擦镜纸揩拭。镜面上如有污秽,可用脱脂棉稍沾二甲苯轻轻揩拭,如用酒精,则要注意不要让酒精渗入物镜内部,以防酒精溶解透镜胶。

       2.15  课前由实验教师把所用显微镜进行维护
      排除常见故障,确保显微镜正常使用。
 
       参考文献
[1] 于长云,生物实验指导、改进与设计·高中[M],长春,北方妇女儿童出版社,2001,2-3
[2] 江南光学仪器厂,江南生物显微镜XSP-16A说明书[M],南京,1982,3-5
[3] 国家教委教学仪器研究所,初中生物实验大全[M],北京,电子工业出版社,1993,26-27
[4] 叶佩珉,义务教育中学生物教师实验手册[M],北京,人民教育出版社,1993,2-3

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